Other causes don`t cause acute dyspnea
It is caused by congestion in the lungs, which occurs as a result of left-sided heart failure .
N.B. : Paroxysmal means sudden attacks that recur, nocturnal means occurring at night.
- Anemia >> dyspnea due to hypoxia
- Heart failure >> dyspnea mainly due to pulmonary congestion
- Bronchial asthma >> dyspnea due to airway obstruction
- Pneumonia >> dyspnea due to the resultant hypoxia leading to dyspnea associated with hyperventilation
so, the answer is pericarditis ( not constrictive )
Rhinitis means inflammation of the nose , so it doesn`t cause cough , but its common symptoms include sneezing, a blocked or congested nose, a watery discharge (runny nose), and an itchy nose
Cardiac causes of cough :
- Pulmonary congestion causes exertional cough
- pulmonary infarction
- pulmonary infection
- Enlarged left atrium compressing the left bronchus
Pulmonary embolism due to immobilization , alterations in normal blood flow (stasis)
This is because one of the actions of beta blockers is to constrict the airways; patients with asthma already have constricted airways, so the beta blockers make the problem worse.
Duodenal ulcers are classically relieved by food, while gastric ulcers are exacerbated by it.
Also , he is a businessman so psychological stress can influence the development of the ulcer.
As melena indicates lesion above ligament of Treitz but it can occur from lesions as far as the cecum
fluid replacement needed first to prevent hypovolemic shock then we can detect the cause by other investigations.
Ascites causes distension, nausea & discomfort.
Sclerotherapy is a procedure used to treat blood vessels malformations (vascular malformations). It’s used in ttt of esophageal varices.
- Bed rest to increase renal blood flow decreasing Renin production and hence reduction of Salt & Water retension
- Thiazides & Spironolactone are diuretics
Islet auto-antibodies detected in type I D.M.
Fasting plasma glucose 126 mg/dl or more
- Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause of left ventricular failure
- Hyperetension is the 2nd common cause of left ventricular failure
- Mitral stenosis is the most common cause of left atrial failure
- Corpulmonale is the 2nd most common cause of right ventricular failure " the most common cause of right ventricular failure is left ventricular failure"
ِAnemia & arrhythmia represent over-load on the heart due to hyper dynamic circulation.
Any infection also represents over-load on heart to pump more of blood to overcome the infection.
Recurrent panic attacks are often triggered by a specific situation, such as crossing a bridge or speaking in public , especially if that situation has caused a panic attack before.
Signs & symptoms of panic disorders :
- Shortness of breath or hyperventilation
- Heart palpitations or a racing heart
- Chest pain or discomfort
- Trembling or shaking
- Choking feeling
- Feeling unreal or detached from your surroundings
- Nausea or upset stomach
- Feeling dizzy, light-headed, or faint
- Numbness or tingling sensations
- Hot or cold flashes
- Fear of dying, losing control, or going crazy
Also she is a young lady , and patients with panic disorders are younger than patients with other types
Peritonitis is accompanied by paralitic ilius
To exclude bronchogenic carcinoma